General Directions when an accident or injury occurs
  1. Stay calm; make certain no one else is in danger.
  2. Establish if anyone in party has medical or first aid training. Put someone in charge of  first aid.
  3. Triage; examine victim and determine injuries; question, if conscious.
  4. Establish priorities for treatment :
Critical (death producing)
  • severe bleeding
  • lack of breathing
  • lack of heart beat
  • shock
Other Injuries
  1. Decide if anything has to be done – have a reason for everything you do
  2. Assign responsibilities to assure proper treatment, shelter, warmth and evacuation
  3. If extent of injury is unknown, move patient as little as possible.
  4. Carry out indicated and necessary first aid
  5. Constantly reassure victim
  6. Transportation
 As a Rule
  1. As a rule, don’t move victim, but wait for more efficient methods of transportation to arrive from outside help, UNLESS victim’s condition will worsen by delay.
  2. Have one person in charge – at the head of victim.
  3. Practice method of lifting and carrying victim before doing it, and practice away from victim.
  4. Never leave victim alone.
  5. Unless victim’s life is at stake, move deliberately and with care.
  6. Send accident information ahead, including needs and evacuation plans.
  7. Be aware that victim is lying still, perhaps in shock, while you are working; maintain victim’s body heat.
  8. Do not step over victim.
  9. Plan a rotation of carriers – those not carrying, pack ahead; have advance group set up camp, etc.
 Carry Methods
  1. Rucksack Carry – large pack bag is slit on the sides near bottom; victim steps in like a pair of shorts, drawstring tied around waist; victim rides piggy back.
  2. Coiled Rope Carry – rope is coiled in a circle about 1.5 feet long and twisted once to form a figure of 8 (or coil is split as coiled); victim sits in loops and carrier inserts arms as though putting on a pack.
  3. Four-hand Seat – useful for short distances; two carriers stand side by side; each grasps his right wrist with his left hand with palms down; then, each grasps the wrist of the other with the free hand to form four-hand seat.
  4. Hiking Pole Carry – for long distances; carriers wearing rucksacks stand side by side with shaft resting between them in their pack straps; victim sits on padded shaft resting between them in their pack straps; victim rests arm over shoulders of each carrier.
  5. Interlaced Rope Stretcher – employed to lower severely injured person down difficult terrain; series of overhand knots zigzagged forming loops for handholds or for poles.
  6. Travois – two small trees cut and laid parallel with branches stripped from upper side; those underneath left to cushion ride; two cross braces are lashed atop the trunks 6 feet apart; rope is used for diagonal bracing and then laced zigzag fashion from side to side.
  7. Two poles wrapped in Gerry tent or other tarp
  8. Two poles through arm sleeves of heavy shirts or jackets
  9. A-frame travois with seat for victim; dragged instead of carried; consider back or internal injuries